Scenario: Angie and Alice are in a same-sex marriage. In 2012, Alice went through the adoption process to become the parent of Angie’s child. Because of the Defense of Marriage Act, Alice properly filed her 2012 tax return as a single person … and claimed the adoption credit for adopting Angie’s child.
- After the repeal of DOMA, Angie and Alice’s marriage is recognized by the federal government back to the beginning of their marriage. So Alice’s adoption was a “second-parent” adoption. Second-parent adoptions are not eligible for the adoption credit. Will the IRS come after Angie and Alice on this?
- Alice’s 2012 tax return was such that she had an adoption credit carryforward. Can this carryforward be used on her 2013 joint return with Angie, considering that the adoption is now a second-parent adoption?
- What if Alice finds something that she needs to amend on her 2012 tax return? Will she need to change her 2012 filing status to “married” and pay back the adoption credit on that amended return, even if she’s amending for some other reason?
ONE: We know that the IRS will honor the filing status used on tax returns filed prior to September 61, 2013. See Revenue Ruling 2013-17. Angie properly filed her 2012 tax return as a single person, so there is no danger of the IRS challenging the adoption credit claim.
Additionally, let’s look at the wording of the Internal Revenue Code regarding the adoption credit. According to IRC Section 36C(d)(1)(C), qualified adoption expenses are expenses:
(W)hich are not expenses in connection with the adoption by an individual of a child who is the child of such individual’s spouse
The Defense of Marriage Act specifically said that the term “spouse” could only refer to couples in opposite-sex relationships. Angie properly filed her 2012 tax return based on the law of the land at the time. Angie and Alice were considered legal strangers at the time, so the adoption was not a second-parent adoption.
Which answers question two: I believe the carryforward can be used on Angie and Alice’s joint 2013 tax return.
Number three is worthy of a blog post of its own, which I’ll have on Wednesday.